Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia are often used interchangeably; however they are different:

Microphthalmia is a disorder in which one or both eyes are abnormally small.

Anophthalmia is the absence of one or both eyes.

Causes of these conditions may include genetic mutations and abnormal chromosomes. Researchers also believe that environmental factors, such as exposure to X-rays, chemicals, drugs, pesticides, toxins, radiation, or viruses, increase the risk of anophthalmia and microphthalmia, but research is not conclusive.

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